Posts by "stockstr"

16 Posts by member
(grhtg, Argentina)
grhtg, Argentina
Posts: 0
46 days ago
Jun 2, 2024 18:20
Behavior Repetition and Stock Price Movements

The purchasing pushes the price up
The rise in price in itself causes a decrease in demand and then a decrease in the price again

The selling pushes the price down
The decline in price in itself causes an increase in demand and then an increase in the price again
the same behavior repeats itself again and again

In financial markets, the shares of any corporation are limited: when the trader buys shares these shares will not be available for other traders to buy them. so the share prices will increase after buying. when the price goes up the demand will decline.
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because of the nature of market behavior price movements will repeat itself

Behavioral repetition is important in the complex world of stocks, influencing stock prices. This includes herd behavior, bias psychology, and periodicity in market movements. Awareness of these components enables investors to make reasonable decisions even though stock prices are also affected by external forces like the economy and politics. On repetition, getting deeper into the complexities of human behavior reveals much more about what drives stock price fluctuation.

Herd Mentality In the Stock Market

Herd mentality is an element of human behavior repetition that affects stock prices. People are inclined to undertake the same steps as those around them, choosing these investment decisions. It will result in herd buying or selling, which will make prices go in one direction. For instance, if a group of investors begins to purchase shares in a certain stock, other people can view this as an indication that they anticipate the stock increasing in value and consequently driving up its price. For instance, when one investor begins to sell a stock, others might interpret it as meaning that the share's value will soon drop, prompting them to sell the shares, thus causing a fall in the share price.

Market trends and patterns are additional factors influencing the repetition of human behavior, including herd mentality and psychological biases. Technical analysts frequently review past price charts and patterns to forecast upcoming price changes. Human behavior repetition explains these patterns, such as head and shoulders, a double top, and triangles. Recognizing these patterns allows traders and investors to employ them as signals for entering into a purchase decision or exiting a sale, affecting the price of stocks.

The Impact of Psychological Biases on Stock Price Fluctuations

Psychological biases are also a facet of human behavior repetition, influencing stock price fluctuations. People may suffer from several cognitive biases (i.e., anchoring, confirmation bias, and being overconfident), ultimately affecting how they invest in a particular option. This may make certain people keep repeating particular behavior tendencies like always evaluating wrongly the cost of one stock or undervaluing their chances towards development. Such periodic practices can cause irrational changes in the stock valuation without applying fundamental research theory.

Human Behavior Repetition to Inform Strategic Investment Decisions

Investors and traders can benefit by understanding how human behavior repetition affects stock price movements. Individuals will be able to identify patterns in certain behaviors and market tendencies that they will then use to inform their investment decisions. Nevertheless, it should be noted that stock prices are determined by many other issues, including the economy, the company's position in the market, and geopolitics. Consequently, people's replication behavior is one of several issues influencing stock market rates.

Technical Analysis and Chart Patterns
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Most traders use technical analysis to look at price charts and patterns to predict subsequent stock price changes. Some of these chart patterns imply that human behavior is similarly repeated many times. These patterns mirror the predictable conduct of buyers and sellers, such as Stock Strategy patterns. Historical price data are used by traders who analyze past market patterns, which help them to predict forthcoming pricing trends.

Overreaction and Underreaction

There are also overreactions and underreactions in human behavior in the stock market. News creates exaggerated price movements because investors overreact to them. This can lead to opportunities whereby people will find repetitions and take advantage of the overreactions. Unlike the overreaction that results when the market responds immediately after gaining new info when it takes long for a market to absorb a new piece of data entirely, it is known as under-reaction, and prices adjust slowly but surely.


Human behavior recurrence is among the notable forces that influence movement in stock market prices in the fascinating stock market arena. Investors find lots of helpful insights by navigating through herd mentality, psychological biases, and market trends.
grhtg, Argentina
Posts: 0
6 months ago
Dec 26, 2023 20:37
The Right Stocks for Swing Trading
The first key to successful swing trading is picking the right stocks. There are two key variables to consider when choosing the stocks to swing trade: liquidity and volatility.

The best candidates are large-cap stocks, which are among the most actively traded stocks on the major exchanges. In an active market, these stocks will have a high transaction volume. If a stock has poor liquidity or doesn't have deep action in a broker's trade book, it may be difficult to sell or may require substantial price discounts to relinquish the shares.

In addition, volatility can be a swing trader's best friend. Without price movement, there are no opportunities to make a profit. While volatility is often thought of negatively, swing trading relies on volatility to create an opportunity to capitalize on the appreciation of a stock's price. The stocks that have the highest volatility may be the most ideal for swing trading as there are the most opportunities for profit.

The Right Market
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Financial markets typically have three prevailing long-term trends: the bear market, the bull market, or somewhere in between. Swing trading strategy is different under each environment.

Bear Market Swing Trading
Bear market swing trading is among the more difficult for natural buy-and-sell trades. In a downtrend environment, equity market prices are decreasing in the long term. Therefore, it is not advantageous to buy a security and hold it with expectations of price appreciation. There are several strategies to circumnavigate this:

Shorten your trade period. Instead of holding for weeks, be prepared to have a quicker turnaround on the securities you are holding.
Hold more cash. Plan on holding back some capital you may otherwise be trading in the event that securities you are holding do suffer material price declines.
Convert to options (by buying puts). Instead of buying now and selling later, the ideal position to hold if you believe prices are declining is to sell a security first, then buy it back later.
Bull Market Swing Trading
Alternatively, to bear markets, bull market trading may be easier. As prices tend to appreciate during these market conditions, it's easier to buy a security and experience a profit a short while later. However, there are a few things to keep in mind when swing trading during bullet markets:

Entry points are higher. After liquidating your position and capturing profits, chances are greater that general market securities are now more expensive if broad markets have appreciated. Be prepared to pay higher prices for securities.
Bad habits are formed. It's often said that bad trading habits are formed during bull markets. Continue to do due diligence and market research on the best securities to hold; while it may seem like every security is a winner, this won't always be the case.
Consider leverage. Leverage trading is not for everyone, and consider your risk appetite prior to leveraging. However, if you are confident in continual appreciation of the markets, you may be able to multiply your position through leverage.
In-Between Market Conditions
The best swing trading conditions occur when financial markets are trading sideways. When the market is transitioning between bear and bull markets or when the market is facing broad uncertainty, the best positions often present themselves for swing trading. Several items to consider include:
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Volatility is good. When markets are volatile in both directions, the best swing trades are to be had. When volatility is strictly in one direction (like in bull or bear markets), it is often more difficult to pull off trades.
Conditions are safest. Not all swing trades work out. In the event you're stuck holding securities, chances are that neutral market conditions will minimize your losses. Instead of being stuck with securities during strong downtrend conditions, there is often more likelihood of prices rebounding.
The time frames that you should use for swing trading are an hour, four hours, daily, and weekly.
Using the Exponential Moving Average
Simple moving averages (SMAs) provide support and resistance levels, as well as bullish and bearish patterns. Support and resistance levels are often useful information when determining a course of action. Bullish and bearish crossover patterns signal price points where you should enter and exit stocks.

The exponential moving average (EMA) is a variation of the SMA that places more emphasis on the latest data points. The EMA gives traders clear trend signals and entry and exit points faster than a simple moving average. The EMA crossover can be used in swing trading to time entry and exit points.

A basic EMA crossover system can be used by focusing on the nine-, 13- and 50-period EMAs. A bullish crossover occurs when the price crosses above these moving averages after being below. This signifies that a reversal may be in the cards and that an uptrend may be beginning.

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grhtg, Argentina
Posts: 0
7 months ago
Nov 26, 2023 17:44
What Is Value Investing?
Value investing is an investment strategy that involves picking stocks that appear to be trading for less than their intrinsic or book value. Value investors actively ferret out stocks they think the stock market is underestimating. They believe the market overreacts to good and bad news, resulting in stock price movements that do not correspond to a company's long-term fundamentals. The overreaction offers an opportunity to profit by purchasing stocks at discounted prices.

Warren Buffett is probably the best-known value investor today, but there are many others, including Benjamin Graham (Buffett's professor and mentor), David Dodd, Charlie Munger (Buffet's business partner), Christopher Browne (another Graham student), and billionaire hedge-fund manager, Seth Karman.

Value investing is an investment strategy that involves picking stocks that appear to be trading for less than their intrinsic or book value.
Value investors actively ferret out stocks they think the stock market is underestimating.
Value investors use financial analysis, don't follow the herd, and are long-term investors of quality companies.
Value Investing
Investopedia / Sydney Saporito
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Understanding Value Investing
The basic concept behind everyday value investing is straightforward: If you know the true value of something, you can save a lot of money when you buy it. Most folks would agree that whether you buy a new TV on sale, or at full price, you’re getting the same TV with the same screen size and picture quality.

Stock prices work in a similar manner, meaning a company’s share price can change even when the company’s valuation has remained the same. This means, strictly speaking, there is no such thing as a true, or intrinsic, value of the stock of a given company. But there are relative values.

Market participants can buy or sell shares without being tethered to an objective price figure. Therefore, stocks, like TVs, go through periods of higher and lower demand leading to price fluctuations. If the company's fundamentals are the same, and its future opportunities are unchanged, then the value of the shares is largely the same even though the price differs.

Value investing developed from a concept by Columbia Business School professors Benjamin Graham and David Dodd in 1934 and was popularized in Graham's 1949 book, "The Intelligent Investor."
Just like savvy shoppers would argue that it makes no sense to pay full price for a TV since TVs go on sale several times a year, savvy value investors believe stocks work the same way. Of course, unlike TVs, stocks won't go on sale at predictable times of the year such as Black Friday, and their sale prices won’t be advertised.

Value investing is the process of doing detective work to find these secret sales on stocks and buying them at a discount compared to how the market values them. In return for buying and holding these value stocks for the long term, investors can be rewarded handsomely.

Intrinsic Value and Value Investing
In the stock market, the equivalent of a stock being cheap or discounted is when its shares are undervalued. Value investors hope to profit from shares they perceive to be deeply discounted.

Investors use various metrics to attempt to find the valuation or intrinsic value of a stock. Intrinsic value is a combination of using financial analysis, such as studying a company's financial performance, revenue, earnings, cash flow, profit, and fundamental factors. It includes the company's brand, business model, target market, and competitive advantage. Some metrics used to value a company's stock include:
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Price-to-book (P/B), which measures the value of a company's assets and compares them to the stock price. If the price is lower than the value of the assets, the stock is undervalued, assuming the company is not in financial hardship.
Price-to-earnings (P/E), which shows the company's track record for earnings to determine if the stock price is not reflecting all of the earnings or is undervalued.
Free cash flow, which is the cash generated from a company's revenue or operations after the costs of expenditures have been subtracted.
Free cash flow is the cash remaining after expenses have been paid, including operating expenses and large purchases called capital expenditures, which is the purchase of assets like equipment or upgrading a manufacturing plant. If a company is generating free cash flow, it'll have money left over to invest in the future of the business, pay off debt, pay dividends or rewards to shareholders, and issue share buybacks.

Of course, there are many other metrics used in the analysis, including analyzing debt, equity, sales, and revenue growth. After reviewing these metrics, the value investor can decide to purchase shares if the comparative value—the stock's current price vis-a-vis its company's intrinsic worth—is attractive enough.
grhtg, Argentina
Posts: 0
8 months ago
Nov 14, 2023 9:56
Top Companies by Stock Price
The most expensive publicly traded share of all time is Warren Buffett’s Berkshire Hathaway (BRK.A), which was trading at $458,675 per share, as of January 2022. Berkshire hit an all-time high on Jan. 18, 2022, at $487,255.
Thanks to spectacular shareholder gains and the idiosyncrasies of its founder, this share value is unlikely to be matched by anything other than continued gains in Berkshire’s share price.

The next company behind Berkshire, in terms of nominal share price, is NVR (NVR) at $5,154.98 per share as of January 2022. Then there is the Seaboard Corporation (SEB), which was trading at $3,731.02, and (AMZN) at $2,852.86, followed by Alphabet, Inc (GOOG) at $2,607.03 a share.

Top Companies by Market Cap
By market capitalization, as of January 2022, Apple (AAPL) is the biggest company at $2.652 trillion, followed by Microsoft (MSFT) at $2.222 trillion, Google (GOOGL) at $1.725 trillion, (AMZN) at $1.446 trillion, Tesla (TSLA) at $947.92 billion, and Meta (META), formerly Facebook, at $843.34 billion.

Back in 2007, Chinese energy giant PetroChina (PTR) reached an estimated market value of around $1 trillion. However, this valuation didn't stick. As of January 2022, PTR's market capitalization stood at just $146.95 billion.
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Top Companies by Revenue
In terms of the biggest global companies by revenue, Walmart (WMT) comes in as number one—according to the Fortune 500 list. Walmart's revenues were $523,964 billion in 2021. Behind Walmart was State Grid with $383,906 billion in revenues, followed by Amazon with $280,522 billion, and China National Petroleum at $379,130 billion.

Sinopec Group ranks fifth with $407,009 billion in annual revenues, and the sixth and seventh spots are covered by Apple and CVS Health with $260,174 billion and $256,776 billion in yearly revenues, respectively.

Based on only U.S.-headquartered companies' 2020 performance, Walmart still has the top spot, while Amazon comes in second. Exxon Mobil ranks third and Apple ranks fourth. Healthcare companies take up the fifth, seventh, and eighth spots: CVS, UnitedHealth Group, and McKesson, generating $256.78 billion, $242.15 billion, and $231.05 billion, respectively.

Berkshire Hathaway ranks sixth with $254.62 billion in annual revenues, and the ninth and tenth spots are covered by AT&T and AmerisourceBergen at $181.19 billion and $179.59 billion in yearly revenues, respectively.

Based on only U.S.-headquartered companies' 2019 performance, Walmart still has the top spot, while ExxonMobil (XOM) comes in second with $290.21 billion a year in revenues. Apple ranks third with $265.59 billion and Berkshire Hathaway fourth with $247.84 billion. Healthcare companies take up the sixth through eighth spots: UnitedHealth Group, McKesson, and CVS, generating $226.25 billion, $214.32 billion, and $194.58 billion, respectively.

Top Private Companies
In terms of private companies, Forbes ranks Minnesota-based Cargill as the largest private U.S. company with $134.4 billion in annual revenues. The company has 155,000 employees. Second is Koch Industries with $115 billion in revenues and 122,000 employees. Ranking third is the grocery chain Publix Super Markets, with $44.9 billion in annual revenue and 227,000 employees.

The fourth and fifth largest private companies are Mars and H-E-B, which generate $40 billion and $32.8 billion, respectively. Each employs over 100,000 employees.
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The Bottom Line
On a pure market value measure, Apple has often been considered the most valuable, publicly traded company of all time. Although Microsoft did briefly hit the $2 trillion market cap mark in June 2021. It is certainly possible another company’s market cap will exceed these measures, and maybe—though less likely—another company will surpass Berkshire Hathaway as the highest priced single stock share.

grhtg, Argentina
Posts: 0
8 months ago
Oct 30, 2023 18:36
How Financial Advisors Get Paid
The job of a financial advisor is to create a personalized financial plan based on each client's income, long-term goals, and financial situation. It may include a budget and a strategy for saving and long-term investing. Depending on the client, it may include recommendations for life insurance, a college savings plan, a portfolio of investments, and more.

Advisors may steer their clients toward specific investments, such as certain mutual funds. If they are also registered traders, they may execute trades in the financial markets by proxy for their clients. In such cases, they may receive compensation by the sponsor.

Registered financial advisors may follow either of two standards:

The fiduciary standard requires them to act in the best interests of the client in recommending investments. They are compensated only by their clients.
The suitability standard requires them to recommend investments that are suitable to the client's situation. They may receive payment from companies for recommending their products.
Stephen Rischall, CFP®, CRPC
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1080 Financial Group, Los Angeles, CA

If your financial advisor is a broker, the answer is yes. Brokers are paid commissions based on the products they sell and are oftentimes incentivized to sell certain products over others. When you purchase a mutual fund with a sales load, part of that additional expense is used by the mutual fund company to pay a commission to the advisor. Additionally, most mutual funds charge a 12b-1 fee as part of their expense ratio collected each year. Part of that fee goes toward paying the broker a trailer commission, so long as the client remains invested in the fund.

In contrast, if your financial advisor is a fee-only, fiduciary advisor, then they do not receive commissions or compensation from outside parties.

How Financial Advisors Earn Trailer Fees
Mutual funds pay financial advisors ongoing trailer fees, ranging from 0.25% to 1% per year of the amount invested. The fees are intended to motivate financial advisors to recommend that their clients invest in their mutual funds.

As long as the client remains invested in the fund, the fund pays the financial advisor the percentage fee.

How Financial Advisors Earn Load Fees
Mutual funds charge their investors front-load fees when they buy into the fund and back-load fees when they leave it. Every time an investor buys or sells shares of the fund, they are charged one of these fees.

A financial advisor receives a small share of both of these fees. It is termed a contingent deferred sales charge by the mutual fund company.

How Do Financial Advisors Get Paid?
A financial advisor may get paid in one of several ways. If it is not immediately clear, the client should ask.

A fee-only fiduciary advisor is paid only by the client.
A "fee-based" financial advisor may be paid by both the companies that sponsor investments the advisor recommends and by the client.
A commission-based advisor is paid only by the companies that sponsor investments the advisor recommends. The service is free to the client.
What Percentage Do Financial Advisors Charge?
If a financial advisor charges a flat annual fee, the average cost is 1% to 3% per year of the assets in the account. That generally covers most advisory services, investment research, and trading.

The client may choose to be billed hourly fees.

Which choice is better depends on the amount of service you expect from an advisor. If you want frequent contact with an advisor and frequent changes to your investments, the flat fee might be best. If you want help drawing up a long-term financial plan but expect to leave your investments alone for the long haul, the hourly fee may cost you less.
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Is It Worth It to Pay a Financial Advisor?
How confident are you in your ability to handle your finances independently? If you're not all that confident, a session with a financial advisor can get you on a long-term spending and savings plan that is feasible and makes sense for you and your family, given your current income and future goals.

The advisor will want to know if you have sufficient life insurance to protect your family; whether you're saving enough towards retirement; whether you're a homeowner or want to be, and much more.

This may turn into a long-term relationship with a financial advisor, or not. Your plan should change with your circumstances over time.

grhtg, Argentina
Posts: 0
9 months ago
Oct 18, 2023 12:54
What Are Soft Dollars?
Soft dollars are a means of paying brokerage firms for their services through commission revenue, as opposed to through hard-dollar direct payments.

The investing public tends to have a negative perception of soft-dollar arrangements. Many investors believe that buy-side firms should pay expenses out of their own profits. As a result, the use of hard-dollar compensation is becoming more common.

Soft dollars are commission payments to a brokerage firm that are used, in part, to pay for other services such as research.
Soft-dollar transactions are frequently criticized for lacking transparency and hiding abuses.
Soft dollars are sometimes defended as providing access to a greater variety of research.
How a Soft-Dollar Transaction Works
Suppose that an institutional investor pays a brokerage firm six cents per share in commissions. However, it might only cost three cents per share to perform the trade. The other three cents are soft dollars used to pay for additional services provided by the brokerage. In exchange for paying these higher fees, the institutional investor might receive access to research.
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Under the right conditions, none of the above presents a problem for the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The regulator is willing to permit soft-dollar transactions, provided that the investor gets good execution, and the commissions are reasonable.

Criticism of Soft Dollars
Mutual fund investors pay the costs of research and other bundled services provided in the soft-dollar transaction. Yet these costs are not disclosed by the fund. They are simply part of the costs of trades, and they impact the long-term performance of the fund.

Technically, the mutual fund would disclose the hard cost of research in its management fee. However, that charge is not paid from the management fee when it is paid for with soft dollars. The fund managers argue that institutional investors ultimately bear all of the costs. However, using soft dollars to pay for research doesn't allow investors to conduct an accurate cost analysis when selecting the fund.

Soft dollar values are not determinable, nor are they equal. What one investment manager receives in the form of services may differ from what another manager gets. That opens the door for conflicts and abuses. The mutual fund investors never know what portion of their transaction costs are applied to the soft services or their actual investment.

Although soft-dollar transactions are still widely used, there is a growing movement to eliminate them. That is especially true as financial reform and issues of transparency become more important in the industry.

Benefits of Soft Dollars
Soft dollars can provide some benefits to investors. One of the main arguments is that they offer access to a greater variety of research.

For instance, investment advisors can use all the research material obtained through soft dollars to benefit all of their clients. According to defenders of soft dollars, eliminating this practice could hinder research efforts by investment advisors and lower returns for their clients.
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Example of Soft Dollars
A mutual fund may offer to pay for research from a brokerage firm by executing trades at the brokerage.

Assume that a large-cap value fund wants to buy some research from XYZ Brokerage Firm. The fund may agree to spend at least $10,000 in commissions for brokerage services in return for the research, which would be a soft-dollar payment. If the fund simply wanted to buy the research, it might have to pay the brokerage firm $7,000 in hard dollars (cash) instead.

Real-World Example of Soft Dollars
In 2013, the SEC levied sanctions against New York brokerage firm Instinet, LLC. Instinet did not flag payments of more than $400,000 in soft dollars to San Diego-based advisor J.S. Oliver Capital Management. However, there were clear signs that the money was used for dubious purposes and not properly disclosed to clients.

The SEC found that associates at J.S. Oliver Capital had misused the soft-dollar payments. Ultimately, the SEC ruled that Instinet overlooked the misuse of the soft dollars and settled with the company for about $800,000.
grhtg, Argentina
Posts: 0
9 months ago
Oct 1, 2023 2:49
8 Best Funds for Regular Dividend Income
By SHOBHIT SETH Updated August 03, 2023
Fact checked by TIMOTHY LI
Reinvestment is known to increase long-term returns. When you reinvest your money, the interim income you generate is put back into the investment. But some investors opt to receive periodic payments from their investments, depending on their specific needs. Periodic coupon or interest payments from bonds, which are debt instruments, and regular dividends, which are cash payments from stocks and mutual funds, can offer investors a steady stream of income. In this article, we explore eight of the best dividend mutual funds that regularly pay dividends regularly.

How Do Mutual Funds Pay Dividends?
Mutual funds often contain a basket of securities including equities or stocks, which may pay dividends. Dividends are paid to shareholders at different times. For instance, mutual funds that follow a dividend reinvestment plan (DRIP) reinvest the received dividend amount back into the stocks. Other funds follow the dividend payment plan by continuing to aggregate dividend income over a monthly, quarterly, or sometimes six-month period, then making a periodic dividend payment to account holders.

A fund pays income after expenses. If a fund gets a regular yield from the dividend-paying constituent stocks, those expenses can be covered fully or partially by dividend income. Depending on local laws, dividend income may be tax-free, which can add to an investor’s overall return.
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Investors should also note that companies are not obliged to make dividend payments on their stocks, meaning that dividends are not guaranteed. Investors looking for dividend income may find dividend-paying mutual funds a better bet than individual stocks, as the latter aggregates the available dividend income from multiple stocks. A mutual fund also helps with diversifying risk from depreciating stock prices since the invested money is spread among dozens of companies.

Here are the best mutual funds that pay high-dividend yields.

A useful benchmark for gauging the dividend-paying performance of a fund is to compare the mutual fund yield with the yield of the benchmark S&P 500 index. The 30-day SEC yield is a standard measurement in the industry mandated by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to help investors compare funds before investing.
1. Vanguard High Dividend Yield Index Admiral Shares (VHYAX)
Vanguard's High Dividend Yield Index Admiral Shares is an index fund that attempts to replicate the performance of the FTSE High Dividend Yield Index. This index contains stocks of companies that usually pay higher-than-expected or greater-than-average dividends. Being an index fund, VHYAX replicates the benchmark stock constituents in the same proportion. This fund has maintained a consistent history of paying quarterly dividends since its inception on Feb. 7, 2019.12

Being an index fund, the VHYAX has one of the lowest expense ratios—0.08%, as of Feb. 27, 2023—and its SEC yield was 3.06%, as of July 31, 2023. The fund has a $3,000 minimum investment requirement. It may be a perfect low-cost fund for anyone looking for higher-than-average dividend income.2

For investors looking for a lower minimum investment requirement, Vanguard offers this fund as an exchange-traded fund (ETF), which has many similar characteristics. The ETF version is called the Vanguard High Dividend Yield ETF (VYM).3
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2. Vanguard Dividend Appreciation Index Admiral Shares (VDADX)
The VDADX is an index fund, which attempts to replicate the performance of the benchmark Nasdaq US Dividend Achievers Select Index. This unique index consists of stocks that have been increasing their dividend payouts over time. Being an index fund, the VDADX replicates the benchmark stock constituents in the same proportion. This fund is also a consistent payer of quarterly dividends since its inception date of Dec. 19, 2013.45

VDADX also has one of the lowest expense ratios. Like VHYAX, it only charges 0.08% as an expense ratio with an SEC yield of 1.76%, as of July 31, 2023. The fund has a $3,000 minimum investment requirement.5
grhtg, Argentina
Posts: 0
10 months ago
Sep 11, 2023 0:05
Disappearing Money
Before we get to how money disappears, it is important to understand that regardless of whether the market is rising (a bull market) or falling (a bear market), supply and demand drive the price of stocks. And it's the fluctuations in stock prices (and the points at which you buy and sell shares) that determine whether you make money or lose it.

Buy and Sell Trades
If you purchase a stock for $10 and sell it for only $5, you will lose $5 per share. You may believe that that money goes to someone else, but that isn't exactly true. It doesn't go to the person who buys the stock from you.

For example, let's say you were thinking of buying a stock at $15, and before you do so, the stock price falls to $10 per share. You decide to purchase at $10, but you didn't gain the $5 depreciation in the stock price. Instead, you got the stock at the current market value of $10 per share.

In your mind, you may think that you saved $5, but you didn't actually earn a $5 profit. However, if the stock then rises from $10 back to $15, you will have a $5 (unrealized) gain.
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The same is true if you're holding stock and its price drops, leading you to sell it for a loss. The person buying it at that lower price—the price you sold it for—doesn't necessarily profit from your loss. That's because their entry point is the lower price and they must wait for the stock to rise above that level before making an unrealized (or realized) profit.

No one, including the company that issued the stock, pockets the money from your declining stock price. The money reflected by changes in stock prices isn't tallied and given to some investor. The changes in price are simply an independent by-product of supply and demand and corresponding investor transactions.

Short Selling
There are investors who place trades with a broker to sell a stock at a perceived high price with the expectation that it will decline. This is called short-selling.

If the stock price falls, the short seller profits by buying the stock at the lower price and closing out the trade. The net difference between the sale and buy prices is settled with the broker.

Although short-sellers profit from a declining price, they're not taking money from you in particular when you lose on a stock sale. Rather, they're conducting independent transactions and have just as much of a chance to lose or be wrong on their trade as investors who are long (own) the stock.

In other words, short-sellers profit on price declines, but it's a separate transaction from bullish investors who bought the stock and are losing money because the price is declining.

So the question remains: Where did the money go?

Implicit and Explicit Value
The most straightforward answer to this question is that it actually disappeared into thin air, due to the decrease in demand for the stock, or, more specifically, the decrease in enough investors' favorable perceptions of it to move the price down by selling.

But this capacity of money to dissolve into the unknown demonstrates the complex and somewhat contradictory nature of money. Yes, money is a teaser—at once intangible, flirting with our dreams and fantasies, and concrete, the thing with which we obtain our daily bread.

More precisely, this duplicity of money represents the two parts that make up a stock's market value: the implicit and explicit value.
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Implicit Value
On the one hand, value can be created or dissolved with the change in a stock's implicit value, which is determined by the personal perceptions and research of investors and analysts.

For example, a pharmaceutical company with the rights to the patent for the cure for cancer may have a much higher implicit value than that of a corner store.

Depending on investors' perceptions and expectations for the stock, implicit value is based on revenues and earnings forecasts.

If the implicit value undergoes a change—which, really, is generated by abstract things like faith and emotion—the stock price follows. A decrease in implicit value, for instance, leaves the owners of the stock with a loss in value because their asset is now worth less than its original price. Again, no one else necessarily receives the money; it simply vanishes due to investors' perceptions.

Explicit Value
Now that we've covered the above somewhat unreal characteristic of money, we cannot ignore how money also represents explicit value, which is the concrete value of a company.

Referred to as the accounting value (or book value), the explicit value is calculated by adding up all assets and subtracting liabilities. So, this represents the amount of money that would be left over if a company were to sell all of its assets at fair market value and then pay off all of the liabilities, such as bills and debts.

Without explicit value, the implicit value of the company would not exist. Investors' interpretation of the financial health and performance of a company is based on its explicit value. Explicit value is t
grhtg, Argentina
Posts: 0
11 months ago
Aug 7, 2023 2:57
Combating Hate Speech: A Religious Perspective

In light of the increasing concern with rights-based concepts, “hate speech” arose as a phenomenon that must be encountered and eliminated, because it undermines humans’ right to respect and honor. Though there is no agreed upon definition for hate speech, UN explains it as a term that refers to offensive discourse targeting a group or an individual based on inherent characteristics (such as race, religion or gender) and that may threaten social peace. Though, the concept is social one, it has a close connection with religion, as radical groups’ discourse promotes hatred and enmity. However, religion can be well employed to face hate speech, provided that the genuine understanding of religion is adopted.
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“O mankind! We created you all from a single man and a single woman, and made you into races and tribes so that you may [get to] know one another. In God’s eyes, the most honored of you are the ones most mindful of Him: God is All-Knowing, All-Aware.” With these words, the Glorious Qur’an draws the frame of the human relations that must be based on respect and fraternity. This verse is an early call for negating the roots of hatred. It sets the foundations of relations of humans in this world: their relation with their lord and their relation with one another. The basis of the former type of relations is to be mindful of Allah, and the basis of the second type is the concept of “Ta’aruf.” Putting in mind that the Glorious Qur’an was revealed more than 1400 years ago, it teaches us how Islam was keen to present a new social concept that should govern human relations in our universe.
This Qur’anic concept finds its root in the fact that all humans are brothers as they all are the descendants of the same father and mother, as stated in the above mentioned verse, and therefore, there should be no hatred among them. It is through this concept of Ta’aruf, Islam implants a harmonious relation between religion and social life, a sign that proves that Islam views religion as a tool to achieve stability and create coherent communities. It is within such frame that the Qur’an prohibits Muslim to insult the gods of other worshippers, though the basic tenet of the Islamic faith is that there is no god but Allah. Qur’an (6: 108) stats, “Do not insult what they invoke apart from Allah, or they will insult Allah.”

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Moreover, Islam does not only consider hate speech as a social defect that should be treated, Rather, it is a sin that a human has to avoid and ask forgiveness of Allah if it happened that he committed it. Hate speech is driven mainly by the feeling of arrogance and the belief that “I’m better than others.” Upon realizing that, we recall the story of Iblees (Devil) and Adam, when the Devil rejected the command of Allah to prostrate before Adam saying, “I am better than him: You created me from fire and him from clay.” This was the cause of wrath of Allah upon Iblees.
Though some may wrongly think that religion encourages hate speech, the truth is, rather, that it is ignorance of religion that incites such heinous attitudes. Islam in fact combats extremism in any form and calls for moderation which is marked in Islam by adopting the concept of wasatiyyah (the middle position).
It was driven by such understanding that Al-Azhar Al-Sharif and its Grand Imam, Prof. Ahmed al-Tayeb, attempt always to promote such understanding in order to combat hatred and hate speech. In fact, over the past couple of years, many efforts have been made to counter hate speech and promote the language of fraternity, either inside Egypt or worldwide.
Within Egypt, Al-Azhar al-Shairf considered that the basis to combat hatred in the Egyptian society is to enhance citizenship. In 2017, Al-Azhar organized an international conference under the title, “Freedom and Citizenship…Diversity and Integration” which aimed at promoting the concept of citizenship from the religious point of view, to prove that citizenship is not only a political concept, but also a religious value in Islam. However, Al-Azhar did not confine itself into theoretical actions. Rather, it has translated these ideas into practical steps. Perhaps the most prominent step in this regard was the institution of the Egyptian Family House (Ar. Beit al-‘Eila), which was established in 2011 to strengthen the relationship between Al-Azhar Al-Sharif and the Egyptian Coptic Church. It aims to foster the ties between the Muslims and Christians of Egypt, and thus strengthens the Egyptian religious harmony. Over the past years, Egypt’s religious communities represented by Al-Azhar and the Orthodox, Protestant, Catholic, and Anglican denominations—have been working to fulfill the Family House’s mission.
On the international level, Al-Azhar al-Sharif was interested to promote the concept that all mankind are brothers in humanity. To achieve this, a very significant and historical document was signed by both Prof. Ahmad al-Tayyeb, the Grand Imam of Al-Azhar Al-Sharif and Pope Francis, Head of the Catholic Church, on February 4, 2019. The Document aims to enhance dialogue on co-existence of humans globally, strengthen human relations and establish bases for such relations based on mutual respect.
To conclude, hate speech is a defect that threatens security as it implants division and discord among members of the same community. The bases of hate speech are radicalism and extremism, and therefore we find hate speech common among extremist Islamists and the followers of radical political attitudes, such as the right-wind followers. The best to counter hate speech is to spread love and fraternity among humans and teach them that they all are brother. Again, we need to contemplate, ponder and spread the words of God in the Qur’an “O mankind! We created you all from a single man and a single woman, and made you into races and tribes so that you may [get to] know one another. In God’s eyes, the most honored of you are the ones most mindful of Him: God is All-Knowing, All-Aware.”
grhtg, Argentina
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12 months ago
Jul 20, 2023 14:33
World Meteorological Organization

The highest temperature recorded on Earth has been measured in three major ways: air, ground, and via satellite observation. Air measurements are used as the standard measurement due to persistent issues with unreliable ground and satellite readings. Air measurements are noted by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and Guinness World Records among others as the standard to be used for determining the official record. The current official highest registered air temperature on Earth is 56.7 °C (134.1 °F), recorded on 10 July 1913 at Furnace Creek Ranch, in Death Valley in the United States.[1] For ninety years, a former record that was measured in Libya had been in place, until it was decertified in 2012 based on evidence that it was an erroneous reading. This finding has since raised questions about the legitimacy of the 1913 record measured in Death Valley, with several meteorological experts asserting that there were similar irregularities. The WMO has stood by the record as official pending any future investigative results. If the current record were to be decertified then the holder would be a tie at 54.0 °C (129.2 °F), recorded both at Furnace Creek and in Kuwait.

Several unverified temperatures that exceed the current record have also been recorded. These include historical claims that were never authenticated due to the equipment available at the time and unverified scientific claims. There are also disproven amateur readings that have been posted on social media showing evidence of extreme temperature.

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Thermometer reading at Furnace Creek Ranch (July 2005)
The standard measuring conditions for temperature are in the air, 1.5 metres (4 ft 11 in) above the ground, and shielded from direct sunlight.[2] Global surface temperatures as a whole have been monitored since the 1880s when record keeping began.[3] According to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the highest registered air temperature on Earth was 56.7 °C (134.1 °F) in Furnace Creek Ranch, California, located in Death Valley in the United States, on 10 July 1913.[1][4][5] This record was surpassed in 1922 by a reading of 57.8 °C (136.0 °F), registered on 13 September 1922, in ?Aziziya, Libya.
Ninety years later, this record was decertified, making the former reading in Death Valley the world's highest official temperature again. The decertification of the former record in Libya has since cast doubt on the validity of the 1913 recording.[6] If the 1913 record were to be decertified, the highest established recorded air temperature on Earth would be 54.0 °C (129.2 °F), also recorded in Death Valley on 20 June 2013, and in Mitribah, Kuwait on 21 July 2016.[7] There have since been higher readings of 54.4 °C (129.9 °F) in August 2020 and July 2021, both at Furnace Creek, that are pending validation.
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Measurements have also been taken in two other ways via ground and satellite readings. Temperatures measured directly on the ground may exceed air temperatures by 30 to 50 °C (54 to 90 °F).[12] The theoretical maximum possible ground surface temperature has been estimated to be between 90 and 100 °C (194 and 212 °F) for dry, darkish soils of low thermal conductivity.[13] While there is no highest confirmed ground temperature, a reading of 93.9 °C (201.0 °F) was allegedly recorded in Furnace Creek Ranch on 15 July 1972.[14] Temperature measurements via satellite also tend to capture the occurrence of higher records but, due to complications involving the satellite's altitude loss (a side effect of atmospheric friction), these measurements are often considered less reliable than ground-positioned thermometers.[15] Satellite measurements of ground temperature taken between 2003 and 2009, taken with the MODIS infrared spectroradiometer on the Aqua satellite, found a maximum temperature of 70.7 °C (159.3 °F), which was recorded in 2005 in the Lut Desert, Iran. The Lut Desert was also found to have the highest maximum temperature in 5 of the 7 years measured (2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2009). These measurements reflect averages over a large region and so are lower than the maximum point surface temperature.[